Pig launchers and pig receivers are installed on a pipeline to launch and receive pipeline pigs and pipeline inspection tools.
There are two types of foundation settlements, immediate or elastic settlement that will occur immediately after imposing loads and consolidation settlement that will occur over time. When you design your piping, immediate and consolidation settlement must be obtained from a structural engineer and taken into consideration.
In this blog I will discuss minimum weld spacing as well as reason for it. During welding, base metal will be affected with heat and that zone is called heat affect zone. Due to high temperature, some area in heat affected zone will be partially melted which cause changes in the material microstructure .Typical heat affected zone will occur 1″ from weld toe, and it is shown on the figure below.
In many occasions, I had to work on pipe routing or piping study using process diagram flow (PDF) only. Very often, this is the case when I work on brownfield projects or projects that are in early phase of development. I usually use 2D AutoCAD to sketch pipe routes, having different colours for the better visualization. Please see the figure below.