For mechanical equipment, nozzle stress are limited as per following code:
Normally, water hammer analysis is handled by process engineer. However, piping designer should be familiar with this subject and in this blog I will briefly discuss water hammer and explore events that cause it.
In this blog I will present sizing of gravity underground pipes. Sizing gravity underground pipes is more on a civil side, but because of simplicity it can be performed by piping designer. Calculation of gravity underground pipes will be conducted using rational method for the layout given in the figure below. Note that rational method is limited to watersheds 200 acres or smaller.
In petrochemical industry, process piping is mostly carbon steel pipes, up to 12″ size. Because of process requirement, piping is exposed to very large temperature range and piping routing required special consideration. Since almost all refinery plants has same type of equipment, we can at least have some guidelines, if not standards, for pipe routing concerning each type of equipment.