Nozzle orientation

Exchanger nozzle
The manufacture’s outline will show suggested nozzle location. The piping designer should be aware that nozzle location and arrangement can be changed to suit piping design.
Basic rules are (please refer to figure above):
1. In the case of liquid, flow media can be interchanged (all types except type K).
2. In the case of stem, steam inlet is always located at the top and condensate outlet at the bottom.
Shell nozzle location and arrangement (Please refer to the figure above)
Possible arrangements for shell nozzle:
1. Type E can be located as shown or rotated 180
2. Type F nozzle are always located at the front of shell. Nozzles must be on the same centerline.
3. Types G, H, K, J and X have no alternate location.
Tube nozzle orientation
Tube nozzle cannot be always changed. In fact, pass partition plate configuration at the front channel will determine tube nozzle orientation. Pass partition plates are shown on the figure below.
Now, let’s consider 8 passes. It is evident that nozzle location and orientation cannot be changed, due to the plate configuration. Please see the figure below.
If we consider 2 or 4 passes it is evident that each nozzle can be installed horizontal, vertical or at angle. The figure below shows some possible nozzle orientations.
Final nozzle location suggest by piping designer must be approved by mechanical engineer or vendor. For possible alterations to flow versus nozzle orientation, mechanical engineer or vendor must be consulted. A good source of information about heat exchangers can be found on Thermopedia site and more information on exchanger piping can be found on Piping engineering website.
Tank nozzle
Tank nozzle orientation should be such that, it does not directly point to pump nozzle. Please see the figure below
Please note that tank piping has been discussed in my blog Tank piping.
Tray Tower nozzle
The tray column is the most widely used type of distillation column. Normally, vendor will suggest nozzle location and orientation. If there is need for changing nozzle orientations, mechanical engineer or vendor must be consult since nozzle orientation depends of tray orientation. Typical piping arrangement of column piping is shown on the figures below.
Figure below shows typical flow diagram indicating platform requirement and valves position
Most common arrangement for reflux drum is shown on the figure below.
Note that due to high temperature, reflux piping should be routed in the way that maximum piping flexibility is provided. Pipe engineering site has a very good presentation of column piping and nozzle orientation.